DEMOCRATIC SOLIDARISM IDEOLOGY
The authors consider the national idea as a complex, multidimensional and multilayer concept that synthesizes various fundamental values and interests, which, forming a certain ideal as a guideline for the development of the nation, contribute to the harmonization of all social groups of the country’s population. Being a spiritual category, the national idea consists of economic and political elements, which, according to the authors, should be reflected in program documents and practical activities of political parties, public organizations, state programs, strategies, etc.
Given the critical importance and relevance of uniting the Ukrainian people on the platform of a national idea, the authors would like to emphasize: without a broad discussion of the concept of this idea, its deep understanding and consensual perception by all social groups and political forces, it’s impossible not only to achieve unity in society, but also to begin coordination the efforts of various social groups in this direction.
Following the authors’ vision, the Ukrainian national idea should solve a twofold problem: firstly, to reflect the core national interests and, secondly, to set the optimal vector for the country’s development. The above can be realized by organically coordinating national interests in the political, economic, cultural and other fields, as well as by directing efforts to achieve ambitious goals related to the formation of a new, much more effective economic model, overcoming the crisis provoked, in particular, by the coronavirus COVID-19 pandemic, etc .
Moreover, interestingly enough, such a combination of national interests in different areas of public life is fully consistent with the important principles of inclusive development adopted in 2012 by the Council of the International Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). These principles are a pan-European trend for further dynamic development.
Based on this understanding of the Ukrainian national idea as a starting point in achieving a dynamic and proportional inclusive development, the authors propose to consider the concept of a national idea both in its integral form, that is, in the form of a general national ideology, and in the form of its components—economic, foreign policy, cultural, military, etc.
It’s pretty obvious that the basis of the national idea of Ukraine should be an independent state. But it’s doubtful that any of the readers would object to the fact that in the process of establishing the global world economic system, the main goal of the functioning of any state should be realization of the economic and social interests of its citizens.
Citizens with the opportunity to fulfil themselves and become wealthy and self-sufficient members of society will be interested in maintaining state independence and the security of such a state, which, pursuing a balanced economic and social policy, can ensure the implementation of high social standards.
Relevance of the paper. In this section, it should be noted: responding to the challenges of our time and formulating a vision of the Ukrainian national idea that absorbs the interests of all social groups of society in Ukraine, the authors substantiate the use for this purpose of the theoretical basis of the democratic solidarism ideology. At the same time, definitions of individual fundamentally new economic categories are introduced into the scientific circulation; moreover, the substantiation of proposals for deepening the categories that are already used in the scientific literature is carried out.
Literature overview. The space of the national idea in scientific research was firmly taken by the problem of ideology. The issues studied by scientists include the problem of the role of ideology in the modern state, the essential nature of any ideology, its principles, content and significance.
It’s also important to note that various aspects of the formation of the Ukrainian national idea are studied in the works of famous Ukrainian scientists, namely: I. Bychko, V. Bebik , M. Golovaty, V. Rebkalo, S. Ya. Dashkevich , V. Zhmir, M. Zhulinsky, O. Zabuzhko , V. Ivanishin, F. Kanak, V. Kafarsky, F. Kirilyuk, V. Lisovy, V. Lizanchuk, S. Makarchuk, I. Makarovsky , Yu. Rimarenko, M. Rozumny , V. Sergiychuk, A. Fartushny .
Today, studies of modern ethnographers, which relate to the problems of national identity, can be considered especially important for understanding the phenomenon of “national idea.”
Commending the theoretical and practical significance of the famous scientists’ research, it should be noted that the identification of problems, prospects and the formation mechanism of the national idea of modern Ukraine—primarily in the context of its economic content—continues to be understudied aspect. Reflecting in this regard on the use of the solidarism ideology, it should be said that this aspect hasn’t yet been covered in modern economic literature at all.
There were several stages in the development of solidarism, and at each of them it acted in a different capacity: in France, socio-economic aspects came to the forefront; in England—legal; in Italy and Germany—political; in Russia—philosophical and metaphysical.
The process of understanding the conditions of social solidarity and attempts to conceptualize them in the format of political ideology date back to the philosophy of German romanticism—namely, to solidarism. Like many other philosophical and aesthetic phenomenon of “modernity”, solidarism arose as a reaction to the disappointment in liberalism and the values of the Great French Revolution.
In the most holistic sound, the ideologists of solidarism, however, declared themselves in France, where at the beginning of the 20th century, solidarism had even been considered for some time as the official ideology of the Third Republic (1870-1940) and was intended to neutralize social antagonism and the growing class struggle that threatened the existence of the state. There, solidarism was considered primarily as a political or purely economic doctrine (Charles Gide, Célestin Charles Alfred Bouglé “Le solidarisme” , Émile Durkheim “The Division of Labour in Society”  , Léon Bourgeois “Solidarite” , Eugène d’ Eichthal “La Solidarité sociale” , L. Fleurant “Sur la Solidarité” ), and also as a specific legal theory of positivism (L. Duguit, M. Hauriou).
It’s noteworthy that the word “solidarism” was introduced into wide circulation in the 1840s by the French utopian philosopher, author of the doctrine of christian Socialism and a disciple of Saint-Simon, Pierre Leroux (1797-1871)  (the term “socialism” also belongs to him).
1. Tomism (the etymology linked with the name of Thomas Aquinas) is the official philosophy of Catholicism from 1879 to 1962, which is a Christian adaptation of Aristotle’s philosophy. Neo-Thomism is a modern version of Thomism.